Scientific Bulletin Series C, Volume XVII (2003)
INFLUENCE OF SLUDGE ON MICROBIAL CONTENTS AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM VULGARE)
Abdorhim H., Khalif A.A., Bayoumi Hamuda H.E.A.F., Heltai Gy., Kecskés M.
Abstract: In greenhouse, plants were grown for 50 days in pots containing meadow chernozem soil were treated with different sludge rates 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100% sludge (w/w). The results show that the max. plant relative dry weight was laid between 40 and 80%, and for S/R ratio was max. at 70%. The microbial populations and the activities of enzymes at all concentrations increased significantly with increasing the treatments of soil by sludge. Although differences from control (only soil) were statistically significant (P <0.05) by increasing the level of application over 30%. High significant differences were found between 70 and 80% sludge contained-soil, where microbiologically, maximum enumerations were increased significantly by increasing the dose of sludge. The ratio between the Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria in the rhizosphere of spring wheat was 2.3. It is concluded that the positive effects of sludge when used as organic fertilizer are more than the its negative effects. However, one of the main problem remains is the final recommendation and model to used such environmental waste materials in the agriculture avoiding the overgrowth of heavy metals in soil and crops.
BUSINESS PROCESS REENGINEERING IN SMALL COMPANIES
Prof. Ioan ABRUDAN, PhD Eng., Ec.; Assist. Prof. Gabriela LOBONŢIU, Dipl. Eng.
Abstract: Business process reengineering (BPR) has been widely applied in many enterprises. However, most
cases have targeted large enterprises. In many countries, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have
played an extremely important role in economic growth. The question of whether those SMEs can successfully implement BPR in order to strengthen their management structure is an important issue. Existing methodologies mainly assume a large organization setting with large-scale resources dedicated to bringing about the large-scale reengineering changes. The paucity of studies in SMEs is surprising given the current and anticipated future market challenges in the SME environment that increase pressure for organizational realignment and responsiveness and market agility.
Keywords: Business Process Reengineering, Small- to medium-sized enterprises, Organizational restructuring
SOME THEORETICAL ASPECTS APLICABLE TO THE RADIAL HYDRODYNAMIC WORKING BEARINGS UNDER HARD SHOCKS
Eng. Alexandrescu I. Marius, Professor Pay Eugen, Ph.D.
Abstract: The paper presents some theoretical considerations and hypotheses in relation to the
elastohydrodynamic lubrication in the case of bearings functioning under hard shocks, that have hydrodynamic lubrication under normal conditions. We state and provide determination relations of the pressure and thickness of the lubrifying layer, taking into account the elastic deforming of the pin and bush.
Keywords: bearing, elastohydrodynamic lubrication, elastic deforming, pin and bush
FARMING ON THE PLAINS REGION OF TRANSCARPATHIA
Dr. Sándor Almásy
Abstract: The laws of the Ukraine allow individual farming, based on the private property of land. At present
there are 1,157 smallholders involved in individual farming on the plains region of Transcarpathia, an area
populated primarily by ethnic Hungarians. The restricted size of lands 7,9 hectares on the average, does not
make it possible to achive high efficiency rates. The majority of the farms work for the direct needs of the family, and only the surplus is marketed. It is expected that farms that are unable to survive shall be eliminated, and the ownership of land shall be concentrated in a small number of wealthier farms. It is also expected that after the old-type cooperatives were closed down, new cooperatives, meeting the demands of a market economy, shall come into being.
Keywords: farming – private land ownership – farm sizes – efficiency
INDIVIDUAL FARMING IN SZABOLCS-SZATMÁR-BEREG COUNTY (HUNGARY)
Sándor Almásy Jr.
Abstract: Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg County in the Northern Plains Region of Hungary has unfavourable
agricultural potentials (soil quality etc.). It determines the overwhelming proportion of individual farms in
agricultural production (78,45 as opposed to the national average of 56,2%). Out of the 99,000 individual farms only 448 cultivates more than hectares of land, whereas the cultivated area does not exceed 1 hectare at 64,000 farms. Mechanization of the small farms is extremely low: they have 10,000 tractors and about 50 combines. The use of fertilizers is also very low. Fewer than 6,000 of the farmers have advanced qualifications, and 66,000 smallholders only have elementary education. This level of qualifications does not ensure efficient agricultural production. A furtjher reduction of the size of the cultivated land in the county is envisaged. It raises the issue of forwarding support to the population of villages from social funds.
Keywords: individual farming – farm sizes – efficiency
INCREASING THE INTELLIGENCE OF ROBOTISED ASSEMBLY
ALPEK Ferenc & PÁL Jenő
Abstract: The assembly automation help to increase the reliability of the operations and they help to reduce the costs in the small and medium size production. During automation the mechanical peripheries must be operated automatically without human help, collaboration and inspection. It means, these equipments have to have pneumatic or hydraulic or electric drives, PLC or other advanced control units and monitoring systems, which are the intelligent components of the assembly. During assembly we need a lot of intelligent mechanical peripheries, which are able to realise the operations. The authors give a short overview about their activity in the field of robotised assembly focused on the sensor based intelligence of mechanical robot peripheries.
Keywords: Assembly, Robots, Intelligence, Sensors, Monitoring
THE BLIND HOLE INFLUENCE IN RESIDUAL STRESSES DETERMINATION
Assoc.Prof.Dr.Eng. Nicolae BAL, Prof.Dr.Eng. Mircea BEJAN, Assoc.Prof.Dr.Eng. Radu MUREŞAN, Assistant. Eng. Mircea ISTRATE
Abstract: The blind hole method with deformation blank test is mostly used to determine the residual stresses in the engineering constructions. The method accuracy is influenced of the hole depth realized in the part. The
paper treats the blind hole depth influence on the deformations produced by releasing of the stresses.
Keywords: strains, stresses, finite element, deformations, residual stresses, FE analysis, mesh, and blind hole
EFFECT OF SOME NITRIFICATION INHIBITORS ON VICIA FABA – RHIZOBIUM SYMBIOSIS
H.E.A.F. Bayoumi Hamuda, M. Kecskés, A. Khalif, E. Orosz, E. Talha, H. Abdorhim
Abstract: The effects of nitrification inhibitors (Dicyandiamide, Nitrapyrin, and Thiourea) at 0, 0.1, 1, 10, and 100 mg/l on the growth and the respiratory activity of the Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae strains were studied in vitro. In vivo, the study was done in acidic low humus content of brown forest soil in the presence of the host plant (Vicia faba). The results of in vivo were documented the in vitro that Dicyandiamide had relatively low effect on the growth and respiratory activity of microsymbionts and symbiotic characters, while, the Thiourea was toxic. Nitrapyrin had a moderate effect in both systems.
THE STRESSES AND STRAINS EVALUATIONS IN THE HOT WATER BOILERS PARTS
Prof.Dr.Eng. Mircea BEJAN, Assoc.Prof.Dr.Eng. Nicolae BAL, Assoc.Prof.Dr.Eng. Radu MUREŞAN, Assistant Eng. Mircea ISTRATE
Abstract: Cylindrical shells forming pressure vessels are realized by heat drawing. In many cases after this process occurs deviation of planarity. These departures are muffled by shell forcing to the given shares, by
clamping with fixing rods and welding of smoke piping angered at specifically shares. This technology instills
supplementary stresses in the cylindrical shells and smoke piping. Therefore, the clamping rods influences the stresses and strains state in the adjacent areas of clamping, recommending the avoiding of the high values of obtained stresses. For the removal the clamping rods and this technology, it proposed that the smoke piping to be angered at size highest projected dimensions and to be worked at technological final size after the welding in the back cylindrical shall.
Keywords: strains, stresses, cylindrical shells, clamping forces, strains, and gauges strains
BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH ACTIVITY IN HUNGARY
Zoltán Benyó, Balázs Benyó, Péter Várady, László Szilágyi, Béla Paláncz, Ákos Szlávecz, Tamás Micsik, Szabolcs Bongár, Gergely Fördős, György Várallyay
Abstract: Biomedical Engineering is a relatively new interdisciplinary science. This paper presents the
biomedical engineering activity, which is carried out at Budapest University of Technology and Economics and its partner institutes. In the first part the main goals and the curriculum of the Biomedical Engineering
Education Program (BMEEP) is presented. The second part of the paper summarizes the most important biomedical engineering researches carried out mostly in the Biomedical Engineering Laboratory of our
Keywords: education, biomedical systems, physiological models, image analysis, signal processing, detection
DEVELOPMENT AND TRIBOLOGY OF RECIPROCATING HYDRAULIC SEALS
Dr. Sándor, Bisztray Balku
Abstract: The development of reciprocating hydraulic seals radically decreased the efficiency and
immensely reduced the seal housing volumes and also the overall economy of high pressure hydraulic
drives. To reveal tribological behaviour of reciprocating seals it is necessary to analyse the relationships
of seal design, tribological features and the main operating characteristics. For environmental protection leakage control has great importance. Leakage calculation of reciprocating high pressure hydraulic seals is
based on the sealing pressure distribution profiles, i.e. diagrams which are playing an important role in
research and development of piston and piston rod seals too.
Keywords: tribology of seals, reciprocating hydraulic seals, piston and piston rod seals, efficiency of
friction seals, seal design
PHYSICAL ANALISE AND CUTTING FORCES IN BEVEL GEAR MACHINING PROCESS
Abstract: In order to calculate machining forces it is necessary to know the chip volume and the phisical
model of the bevel gears machining process. It is considered the theory of transfer energy routes and energy
quantum aplicable to this process.The force variation in time diagram was established.
Keywords: bevel gears machining, cutting forces, physical model
SPECIFICAL ASPECTS FOR TOOL – PIECE FRICTION IN PUNCHING MANUFACTURING
Lecturer eng. Lucian Butnar Ph.D.
Abstract: The paper presents the major aspects for the friction between tool and punching
manufacturing piece, the peculiarity of this friction and its effects on the piece quality. The paper proposes an
own method of the author for measuring the friction coefficient between tool and piece in punching
Keywords: Punching, friction coefficient, tool, stamp, active plate, piece, steel, quality
EMBRYOLOGICAL STUDY OF SOME SPECIES OF FABACEACE
THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PRESSURE GAIN COEFFICIENT OF A SPECIAL WALL – ATTACHEMENT DEVICE
Abstract: The paper presents the theoretical study regarding the pressure gain coefficient variation of the wall – attachment device. The examined bistable element is a special device with an incompressible fluid as supply jet and compressible fluid as command jet. In the technical literature no information was give regarding this problem.
Keywords: bistable element, pressure gain coefficient, supply jet, command jet
EXPERIMENTAL DETERMINATION OF THE PRESSURE GAIN COEFFICIENT OF A FLUID BISTABLE ELEMENT WITH JETS OF DIFFERENT PHYSICAL NATURE
Abstract: The paper presents the experimental study regarding the pressure gain coefficient variation of
the wall – attachment device. The examined bistable element is a special device with an incompressible fluid as supply jet and compressible fluid as command jet. In the technical literature no information was give regarding this problem.
Keywords: bistable element, pressure gain coefficient, supply jet, command jet
RESEARCH ANALYSIS ON THE REPLACEMENT OF METALLIC BY NON-METALLIC ELEMENTS IN THE MINING INDUSTRY
Radu COTEŢIU, Otto EBERST
Abstract: Taking in account the preoccupations of a great number of scientists, which works in replace the steel materials with nonmetalic materials field, the paper presents experimental results regarding the efficiency of the replacement of metallic by non-metallic elements in the mining industry. This paper contains experimental results that were obtained on some machine elements from mining machines.
Keywords: polyamidic materials, reliability, mining machines
MECHANICS OF GRANULAR MATERIALS ARCHING THEORIES AND EXPERIMENTS
Bela Csizmadia, Istvan Keppler
Abstract: The arching action in granular mass – formation, stability and damage of self-supporting stagnant
arch like structures inside the bulk material – investigated here with our quasi-triaxial-, arching examiner- and optical measurement apparatus. Measurement of the flow function using our quasi-triaxial apparatus discussed. Definition of bilinear material model and fabric damage also discussed here. With the use of the flow function and bilinear material model we designate upper and lower borderlines of the region where self supporting bulk material – the so called disturbed region – can be found. Our research was supported by OTKA 035022.
Keywords: granular material, arching, triaxial apparatus, bilinear model, flow function, fabric damage, dis-
THE EXAMPLES OF CAD/CAM SYSTEMS UTILIZATION IN EDUCATION AND PRACTICE
Abstract: At present time CAD/CAM systems have a dominant position in the air, automobile and space industry primarily. The article describes utilization of CAD/CAM system Pro/ENGINEER in education at faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Žilina and cooperation of Department of Measurement and Automation with Mechanical Engineering.
Keywords: CAD/CAM system, computer aided, Pro/ENGINEER, NC machine, CL Data, postprocessor
CONSIDERATION ABOUT USING 3D SOLIDS MODEL IN MECHANICAL DESIGN
Abstract: Solids modelling is most useful in mechanical design giving us major benefits. In this paper we propose a technique of obtaining solids using 2D projections of the objects in AutoCAD2002, and secondly, by applying AME system of this program. We can assure a most efficiency administration of the technical documentation by using the insertion of the parts’ original drawings in the ensemble drawing, like external references.
Keywords: solid, model, 2D, 3D
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION WITH HEAVY METALS
Mariana DOBRA, Vasile VIMAN
Abstract: The estimation of the pollution level and of the dangers presented by this phenomenon, implies some analyses in which the concentrations of heavy pollutant metals should be determined in samples of
dusts from the air, samples of soil and plants. The analytical techniques used must have low detection limits, the lowest matrix effects possible and they must allow the determination, as precise as possible, of the major
components as well as of the minor ones and in traces [6,7]. The methods that respond to these requirements are from the category of atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The area in which the researches were done is characterized by the existence of some industrial units of extraction of some ores which contain as major components Pb, Cu, Zn and as minor components or in traces Cr, Mn, Ni, Co, Ag, Au, Al, Fe.
The presence of these metals in the air, water and soil has negative effects on human health, plants and animals. This study analyzes these aspects in a zone of Romania strongly polluted with heavy metals.
Keywords: heavy metals, AAS, ICP-AES, speciation
SOME CONCEPT OF DIAGNOSTIC REASONING FOR SYSTEMS WITH UNCERTINTY
Boguslaw Dolega, Tomasz Rogalski
Abstract: The diagnostic reasoning for systems with uncertainty is the main difficulty in modern diagnostic.
Uncertainty is present in the most of diagnosed systems – from medicine to technical applications. Usage of
different methods in tasks of diagnostic reasoning connected with these problems has been presented. A wide range of conclusions associated with diagnostic systems creating can be used by designers of these systems.
Keywords: Diagnostics Systems, Artifical Inteligence, Rough Sets
IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SINGLE, DOUBLE AND TRIPLE COMBINATIONS OF METAL SALTS ON RHIZOBIUM AND ESCHERICHIA STRAINS
Sándor, Farkas, H.A.E.F. Bayoumi Hamuda, Gyöngyi Gunics, Mihály Kecskés
Abstract: The antibacterial effect of Ag, Hg, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Mo, Mn, Pb, Zn and Se mineral salts and two fungicides Cineb and Mancozeb were investigated on Sinorhizobium meliloti, Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, R. leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, R. leguminosarum bv. viciae, Bradyrhizobium japonicum, Bradyrhizobium sp. (Acacia) and Escherichia coli strains with brothdilution method. The strains showed different sensitivity to inorganic and organic metal salts. All strains were sensitive to toxic effect of Ag and Hg metal salts, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were 2-20 μM. In contrast all strains showed high level resistance to Se, Fe, Mn, Pb salts and Cineb (MIC > 1000 μM). The toxic effect of metal salts alone better-inhibited growth of bacterial strains in vitro than double or triple combinations of metal salts. In the presence of 10 μM Fe2+ or 10 μM Fe2+ plus 1 μM Mo6+ and Mg2+ (30 or 50 μM) ions decreased the antibacterial effects Co2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Ni2+ and two fungicides (Cineb and Mancozeb) on the E. coli, Bradyrhizobium and Rhizobium strains.
THE APPLICATION AND MODELLING POSSIBILITES OF CVT IN TRACTOR
Zsolt Farkas, Dr. István J. Jóri, Dr. György Kerényi
Abstract: The tractor transmission system has been changed from the single sliding gear type to the electro hydraulic and power shift and finally to the CVT types.
Our paper evaluates the new system and its advantages and represents the practical possibilities and the
Hungarian experience of the CVT types through the examples of Fendt, Steyer, John Deere and Deutz-Fahr
Systems we have already studied.
A comparison was made between the different types by the technical features and a field survey of 6 pcs tractor were used on a large-scale farm for transport, primary and secondary tillage.
Our final aim is develop a simulation model of CVT to manage the tractor-implement matching.
Keywords: CVT, Simulation, Driving system
DETERMINATION OF THE THERMAL GRADIENT INSIDE THE “POCKET” OF LUBRICANT FOR THE CONE DOUBLE ENVELOPING WORM GEAR
Lecturer, dr. Cristian FEDORCIUC – ONIŞA, dr. Mykola DŽUBINSKÝ
Abstract: The double enveloping worm gear features itself through double enveloping aspect as well
as the double contact during running. There is always o contact line and a contact curve simultaneously.
Between them a cavity is formed (so called “pocket”) in which the lubricant is kept under pressure and hence the high load capacity of this gear under good running conditions is assured.
Due to variation of the worm geometry, the “pocket” of lubricant changes its shape and thickness along
the meshing area. The contact conditions, like normal relative curvature, instantaneous contact force, change as well. Consequently, the gradient of instantaneous lubricant temperature inside “pocket” will vary.
The present paper focuses the tribologic study of Cone double enveloping worm gear towards
determination of the thermal gradient inside the pocket” lubricant by involving the TEHD lubrication’s
equations, solving them in an original manner and establishing this variation along the meshing area.
Keywords: TEHD lubrication, coefficient of friction, viscosity, lubricant film
A METHOD FOR OPTIMUM DESIGN OF BEAMS WITH DIFFERENT CROSS SECTION SHAPE.
Part I, design problem, optimization problem and solution method
Filip Văcărescu Daniela, associate prof.Ph.D.
Abstract: The minimum weight design problem for frame structures subject to stress and displacement
constrains is treated. The cross sectional dimensions are used as design variables and the hybrid approximation technique in combination with the dual method from mathematical programming is used. Seven different sectional shapes are treated.
Keywords: minimum weight design problem, hybrid approximation technique
A METHOD FOR OPTIMUM DESIGN OF BEAMS WITH DIFFERENT CROSS SECTION SHAPE.
Part II constraint functions, examples
Filip Văcărescu Daniela, associate prof.Ph.D.
Abstract: A beam clamped at both ends has been optimized to show the validity of proposed concept. The
optimization procedure results in the final cross-sectional dimensions instead of cross-sectional properties like area, moment of inertia an rotational moment of inertia, and no further treatment has to be done.
The designer may compare the results for different cross-sectional shapes and select the best. For
instance, the Z cross sectional shape is the best for clamped on both ends studied.
Keywords: optimization procedure results, results for different cross-sectional shapes
SPREADING OF IODINE AND FLUORINE IN THE OBJECTS OF THE ENVIRONMENT IN DIFFERENT BIOGEOCHEMICAL ZONES OF TRANSCARPATHIA
Fabry Adrienn, Fabry Zoltan
VIBRATION LEVEL OF BALL BEARINGS DETERMINED BY GREASE STRUCTURE
Mihai GAFITANU, Gelu IANUŞ and Florin TĂRĂBOANŢĂ
Abstract: Grease degradation has an important influence concerning vibration level of ball bearings
in running time. Resulted sediments after chemical and thermic degradation process alter frequency
spectrum, similar with waves on inner and outer races. In opposite with these, the alters bring about
sediments appear and disappear in running time. So, they adhere or detach from race ways. Aquaired
signals analysis give more details about estimation of ball bearings grease life reserve.
Keywords: lubrication, grease, ball bearing, vibration
TEST BENCHES COMPUTER CONTROL SOFTWARE TOOLS DEVELOPMENT
Dr. Ing. Juraj Gerlici, Ing. Tomáš Lack
Abstract: The paper deals with the measure and control program systems and the possibility of design
application program environments for measurement, experiments controlling, data scanning and data
assessment. The authors describe the working principles of LAGER development system and Component Works software product. This software is successfully installed in the departmental heavy laboratory of vehicles in the computer for automated control, data acquisition and data assessment for ERRI certified Test stand bench of Railways of Slovak Republic.
Keywords: data acquisition, data assessment, LAGER, ComponentWorks
STATIC LOAD STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS OF ARTICULATED TYPE
Ghionea Adrian, Constantin George, Popa Răzvan, Niţă Adrian
Abstract: The paper deals with the calculation algorithm of the structure elements static loads of an industrial robot of articulated type – RRR used in welding. For calculation, the general architecture and the constructive variant of the robot are known. The calculation relations of the kinematic radii, gravity and dynamic forces that act in the mass centers, gyration radii, and the resultant torsor are presented. On the basis of the working space, functional characteristics, and integration characteristics in a welding cell, the reciprocal position and orientation of the motion axes of each robot joint are established.
The application supplies the numerical values of the parameters that define the robot loads. The loads
knowledge (forces and moments) is necessary in elemental and mechanism calculations and also in driving
motor selecting. The disadvantageous robot configurations can be emphasized.
Keywords: robot, kinematic structure, joints, constructive structure, forces, moments, static load
ACTUATORS CONTROLLER FOR SMALL FWB AIRCRAFT
Jozef Grzybowski, Pawel Rzucidlo
Abstract: This paper presents conception and practical realization of actuators controller. Actuators mounted on aircraft board are responsible for control surfaces deflection. They are critical elements of the fly-by-wire (FBW) control systems. Actuator should be precise, fast, powerful and reliable. Important part of this element is electronic controller. Electromechanical actuators can be improved by using appropriate control techniques, hardware and software structure.
Keywords: actuator, controller, FBW, aircraft
EXTRACTION OF TOXIC HEAVY METALS FROM POLLUTED SOILS IN FORM OF CHELATES
TOOTH CONTACT ANALYSIS OF ZTA TYPE WORM GEAR DRIVES
PÉTER HORÁK, TIBOR BERCSEY
Abstract: To calculate the efficiency, to reduce the friction and wear and to optimise the tribology conditions of highly loaded worm gear pairs information is needed about the contact pressure and area between the teeth flanks.
The simplest theory assuming a constant Hertzian pressure, within a contact position. The aim of this investigation is to turn away from this assumption and to calculate the contact area and the changing load
distribution between worm gear teeth pairs through the meshing.
Keywords: Contact analysis, coefficient matrix, load distribution, worm gear flank
THE MANAGEMENT OF INFORMATIONS AND CAD IN THE CONCEPTION AND DEVELOPMENT PHASES OF A PRODUCT
Ispas Constantin, Ghionea Ionuţ
Abstract: In the paper is presented the importance of computer design and management in early phases of a
product development. In the design process of any product, the analysis and identification of the requirements, the search for solutions, the analysis and decision of the solutions variants are very important, mostly in the early design phases, when a product needs tasks clarification, understanding of the concept and embodiment design.
The whole course and main characteristics of the resulted product development project are determined by these tasks. The work and costs for design changes increase during the progress of a product development project, but in the concept phase when the decisions for the solutions are taken, are much lower. In order to make decisions between different solution variants in an early stage of a project, it is necessary to have access to relevant informations about the viable solutions.
Keywords: computer design, conception and development, design phases, reusing the information
EXPERIMENTAL EQUIPMENTS FOR RESEARCHES REGARDING THE KINEMATICS OF TRIPOD COUPLINGS
Aurel JULA, Mihai LATEŞ
Abstract: The paper presents experimental researches regarding the kinematics of tripod couplings with exterior contacts. First, there are presented the tripod couplings solutions proposed for testing; also it is presented the testing stand and the measurement system.
Keywords: tripod coupling, test stand, error from homokinetics
SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION OF MANGANESE FROM FLY ASH
Kalembkiewicz Jan and Sitarz-Palczak Elżbieta
Abstract: The four – stage sequential extraction procedure, proposed by the European Community Bureau of Reference (BCR), has applied for distribution of manganese in a fine fly ash (CTA – FFA – 1). The concentration of Mn in the solutions after extraction was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The fraction of Mn were defined: (1) – acid soluble (e.g. carbonates); (2) – reducible (e.g. Fe / Mn oxides); (3) – oxidisable (e.g. organic matter); (4) – residual. On the base of results was investigated the partitioning of Mn between the individual fractions in the research material. The verification of the analytical results of the determination of Mn was carried out.
Keywords: fly ash, manganese, sequential extraction, FAAS
SEQUENTIAL EXTRACTION AND VALUATION OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF CHROMIUM IN SOIL
Jan Kalembkiewicz, Eleonora Sočo
Abstract: Influence of chromium on the course of biochemical reactions in the environment depends among
others on possibility of its getting from soil to soil solutions. In practice this process is investigated among
others by performance of the sequential extraction of soil and characterization of chemical fraction of
chromium. Chromium description in soil eluates requires establishing conditions of preparation of a soil sample for researches, performing of the sequential extraction of soil and chromium determination in obtained solutions. Influence of a grain diameter and drying temperature of soil and time of extraction, volume of the eluent and leaching temperature on the final result of Cr extraction from soil to solutions and its determination in eluates were performed. Optimum conditions of Cr extraction from soil and its analysis were established. The estimate of contents of various fraction of Cr in soil was performed as well as it was found not larges contents of exchangeable chromium and higher Cr contents in residual.
Keywords: soil, sequential extraction of soil, chromium, FAAS
EVALUATION OF POSSIBILITY OF PHYTOSTABILIZATION OF HEAVY METALS BY PLANTS
Keresztúri, Péter; Lakatos, Gyula; Uri, Zuzsanna ; Simon, László
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the spontaneously formated vegetation on the heavy metal concentration of a leather factory sewage sludge. The site of our investigatin consists of three staightly-connected sludge settling pounds. The main pollutant substance of the sludge is the chromium originated from the leather manufacturing process. The average total chromium concentration of the sludge was 30.000 ppm at the begining of our investigation. But the amount of the extremly toxicant chromium (VI) form was only 150 ppm, fortunately. In 1998, when the activity of the factory ended the three pounds has been overgrowen spontaneously by various plants. In 2001 we managed to identified 42 different plant specieses. The three most dominant specieses were the reed (Phragmites australis), the bulrush (Typha angustifolia) and the orach (Atriplex hastrata).
Keywords: heavy metals, chromium, tannery waste, natural vegetation
OPTIMIZATION METHODS IN PROCESS PLANNING
Abstract: CAx system is today basic stone of many engineering’s works. But for success work must contain tools for optimization. In this article we talk about algorithm for implementation optimization tools to Cax systems.
Keywords: CAPP systems. Optimization, GA, Stochastic principles, Simulated annealing
DETECTION AND ENUMERATION OF ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES AND FLUORESCENT PSEUDOMONADS POPULATION IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF WHITE CLOVER DUE TO SALINITY
Khalif A.A., Abdorhim H., Bayoumi Hamuda H.E.A.F., Kecskés M.
Abstract: In the greenhouse, Trifolium repens was grown in an agroecosystem using acidic brown forest soil treated with different NaCl doses. In vitro, different techniques were used for counting fluorescent pseudomonads, as well as the measurement of enzymatic activities. The result indicates that the population density of fluorescent pseudomonads in the rhizosphere was directly affected by the degree of salinity. The population was maximum at 0.2% comparing with other saline treatments. Strains of Pseudomonas putida and P. fluorescens were the most dominant fluorescent pseudomonads at this concentration. It was found that the NaCl tolerated strains of the fluorescent pseudomonads have high survival and root colonizing activity in the rhizosphere, especially in NaCl high treated soil. The addition of NaCl successfully increased the activities of dehydrogenase, catalase and urease between 0.2 – 0.4%, while for protease, it was laid between 0.1 – 0.2% NaCl. The activities of phosphatase and β-glucosidase were lower than the control by increasing NaCl concentrations.
USER-FRIENDLINESS IN SPECIALIZED BILINGUAL DICTIONARIES
Abstract: This paper deals with the notion of user-friendliness in specialized bilingual dictionaries with a
special emphasis on one target group of potential dictionary users, namely layman translators. It discusses the needs of translators with regard to the kind of information items provided in dictionary articles and touches upon the issue of lexicographical presentation. Theoretical considerations are accompanied by references to English-Polish dictionaries of computer science.
Keywords: bilingual dictionary, specialized dictionary, translator, user-friendliness
THE USE OF MODEL FOLLOWING CONTROL FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT IN CONTROLLING THE AIRCRAFT LATERAL MOTION DURING APPROACH
Grzegorz Kopecki, Andrzej Tomczyk
Abstract: One of the modern control methods is the usage of model following control. This method was applied to control the aircraft lateral motion during approach with the use of ILS-LOC. The results were compared with the classical solution (PID controller) and the solution with PID and supervisory fuzzy controllers. Mathematical description of the problem was made too.
Keywords: Aircraft Control Systems, Model Following Control, Approach
FAILURE PHENOMENONS AND THEIR ROOT CAUSES IN PLANETARY GEAR SYSTEMS
Lászlo, Kovács; Mihály, Kozma
Abstract: Planetary gear systems are well-known and widely used in almost every field of industry, because of their high load carrying capacity and efficiency, compared to ordinary gear drive systems. Using some types of planetary gear systems, very high gear ratios can be realized in one step. In contrary to these benefits, the complex structure of planetary gear systems make them more sensitive to manufacturing errors and improper maintenance. There are some special failure phenomenon, which are special for planetary gear systems. In this article, these phenomenon are analyzed.
Keywords: planetary gear, failures, dual planet gears, efficiency
COMPARISON OF ENERGY BALANCE OF SPRING SUPPORTED OR NOT SPRING SUPPORTED FRONT BRIDGED TRACTORS
Zoltan Kovacs, Dr. Lajos Laib, Dr. Mark Szente
INVESTIGATIONS OF SEIZURE AND SCUFFING OF MACHINE PARTS
Mihály, Kozma; Péter, Bollók,
Abstract: The usual failures of heavy loaded metallic sliding surfaces are scuffing, seizure etc. Many of these
processes can be originated from adhesive bounds formed between the contacting peaks of rough sliding
surfaces. The surfaces have to be prevented from these failures, by hindering the adhesive bounds. Presented
paper submits the results of investigations, aims of which were to determine the reasons of surface damages of rubbing pairs. Laboratory experiments were made on steel ball/steel disk sliding pairs under heavy load. During the tests the friction force and load were measured, after that, the form and size of the wear marks and the condition of the worn surfaces were investigated. The results of the experiments demonstrate the differences of the tests performed by lubrication and without lubrication.
Keywords: friction coefficient, pin-on-disk machine, damages of surfaces, seizure, preventive layers
BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ANALYSE FOR SEMI-PRODUCT DESIGN IN FORGING PROCESS AND THEIR DIGITALISATION AND USING IN CAPP SYSTEMS FRAME
Ing. Jozef Kuba, PhD.
Abstract: The lecture analyses problem of semiproduct design in forging process in comparison to chip
technologies. It refers to determination of boundary conditions and rules digitalisation from aspect of computer technique putting. The part of article undertakes boundary conditions implementation to CAPP systems bases on expert system principles.
Keywords: forging, semiproduct design, database, boundary conditions, pin-on-disk machine, damages of surfaces, seizure, preventive layers
3D ROBOT MODEL AUTOMATIC MODIFICATION
Darina Kumičáková, Pavol Kmeť
Abstract: At present the most of world producers have been forced to use maximally the newest technical
knowledge and tools for the both new product development or existing ones innovation. The high efficiency is reached with computer aid of the flexible assemblies creating built up on the unified modular components base. The article is aimed at the effective utilisation of CAx system Pro/ENGINEER tools for modification of robot 3D models creating. There are shown possibilities of the robot 3D model automatic modification through the controlling program which had been created in Pro/ENGINEER environment.
Keywords: robot, automation modification, Pro/ENGINEER, modularity of robots
DEVELOPMENT OF COST VALUATION SYSTEM
Kuric Ivan, Matuszek Jozef
Abstract: There is a great meaning of cost determination in enterprises. Nowadays it is mainly realised by
experienced peoples oftentimes without computer support. The subjective influence is great and afterwards
decision about acceptance of a offer is not economic effective. It is necessary to elaborate a methodology for
cost valuation of offer as an important tool for CA systems.
Keywords: rapid cost valuation, CA systems, group technology
TIN COATED STEELS AS A MATERIAL FOR BLANKING STAMPS
Stanisław Kut, Jacek Mucha and Feliks Stachowicz
Abstract: The paper present the results of operating investigations of blanking process efficiency in high speed blanking of generator sheet metal. Evaluation of a shearing tool material quality was performed on the base of measurements of the burr height. The experiment has been carried out using different shearing tool materials; uncoated as well as TiN coated ASP23 sintered steel and SW7M high-speed steel.
Keywords: generator sheet, blanking stamps, burr height, wear
THE PHILOSOPHY OF DESIGN IN A NUTSHELL
Abstract: In Eastern Europe design as a new discipline is dismissed by some as something unnecessary, marvelled by others as something magical or is simply considered as the battering ram of the philosophy of consumer society. All these views arise from either not knowing the subject matter or from misunderstanding it. In this paper we shall attempt to show the process during which design became an organic part of life in the developed world and contributed extensively to the change in the quality of life, which makes its existence and function unquestionable nowadays. How does design work and affect us? Why is its role growing constantly and irresistibly both in technology and in our everyday routines?
METHOD TO STUDY THE MICROBIAL INTERACTIONS BETWEEN THE INOCULATED MICROSYMBIONTS AND THE INDIGENOUS MICROBES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE
KÖVES-PÉCHY, K., BIRÓ, B., VÖRÖS I., STRASSER, R.J.
Abstract: Three-substrate microcosm method was used to study the microbial interactions in the rhizosphere of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown in a loamy chernozem control soil. The effect of some beneficial microsymbionts, such as the nitrogen-fixing associative Azospirillum (A. brasilense-S) and root-nodulating Rhizobium (R. meliloti-R) bacteria and the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus fasciculatum-M) were also assessed as single- (M), dual- (MR, MS) or tripartite mycorrhizal co-inoculations (MRS). Beside the unsterilised, control soil (including the normal rhizosphere community-C), there were other substrates used, such as the b/ gamma-sterilised soil (G) and c/ bacterial reincubated mycorrhiza-free soil (GB). In these substrates the single-, dual- or tripartite inoculation of the diazotrophs were used, so as to get data about their interactions with the indigenous AM fungal populations.
Beside the mass production, nodule-number, and mycorrhizal colonisation was recorded.
In the gamma-sterilised soil, without the interacting microbial parameters in the rhizosphere, all of the mono-
(M) or multilevel (MR, MS, MRS) microbial combinations were effective for improving either plant development or the rhizosphere-colonizations. The tripartite inoculation (MRS) of microsymbionts further
enhanced the tested parameters, causing a synergistic effect in the gamma-sterilised soils. In the mycorrhiza-
free, but bacterial re-inoculated substrate, however no further improvement could be realised, suggesting the importance of AM fungal colonisations in the mycorhizosphere. Among the dual inoculations the less
compatibility was found between the applied Rhizobium and mycorrhizal strain (MR), while the opposite
happened between the nitrogen-fixers in the unsterilized control soil (RS). The microcosm method, used in this study offers an appropriate tool to evaluate the specific relationships and the functional compatibility between the microbial inocula and the host-plants in the various soil-plant systems.
Keywords: microbial interactions, inoculation, microsymbionts, associative diazotrophs, rhizobia, arbuscular
EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCHES REGARDING THE KINEMATICS OF TRIPOD COUPLINGS
Mihai LATEŞ, Dorin DIACONESCU
Abstract: The paper presents experimental researches regarding the kinematics of tripod couplings with exterior contacts. First, there is presented the general testing algorithm; by using this algorithm and an experimental stand are measured the values of the angular position of the input and output shaft of the tripod coupling with exterior contacts. Finally it is determined the error from homokinetics and the experimental results can be compared to the theoretical results.
Keywords: tripod coupling, testing algorithm, error from homokinetics
DETERMINATION OF GEAR TOOTH SURFACE DEVIATIONS IN CASE OF SPIRAL BEVEL GEARS
Lelkes, Márk; Play, Daniel; Márialigeti, János
Abstract: Real gear tooth surfaces are measured by co-ordinate measurement systems. Machine setting errors
like work piece and tool setting errors issue of spiral bevel gear cutting procedure are detected from the
measurement data. As the theoretical gear surface is expressed as a function of machining parameters, an
estimated surface is fitted to the real one. The deviations between the design surface and the estimated surface are considered as machine settings errors.
Keywords: gear design, spiral bevel gears, tooth surface measurement, CMM
MODELING THE SYNCHRONISATION BEHAVIOUR OF MANUAL CAR GEARBOX SYNCHROMESH MECHANISMS
László LOVAS, Daniel PLAY, János MÁRIALIGETI, Jean-François RIGAL
Abstract: This paper deals with the modelization of synchronisation process with synchromesh mechanisms of manual gearboxes. The structure of the studied synchromesh mechanism is presented, then a theoretical model of the friction process is mentioned. Developement of this model is proposed by including the effect of the oil viscosity variation due to pressure and temperature, as well as one of churning and bearing losses. Finally, computer simulation and experimental results are presented and compared.
Keywords: synchromesh, energy losses, double bump, numerical simulation
THE EUROPEAN UNION’S NUCLEAR POLICY AND THE APPLICANT COUNTRIES ENERGETIC STRATEGY
Abstract: The nuclear power plays a crucial role in combating global warming, emits no greenhouse or acid
rain gases and decreases the energy external dependence. Nevertheless, the European Commission considers the future of nuclear energy in Europe uncertain, because it depends not only on energy demand and environmental issues but also on nuclear reactor’s safety and waste problem. The most EU countries have imposed legal or policy restrictions on building nuclear power plants, some of them have made decisions to phase out the use of nuclear power. On the contrary, the EU applicant countries, with low per-capita energy consumption, rely their sustainable development of energetic sector on nuclear power.
MATHEMATIC MODELLING OF THE COPPER RECOVERY PROCESS USING A VOLUMIC ELECTRODE
Anca Mihaly – Cozmuta, Leonard Mihaly-Cozmuţa, Camelia Varga
Abstract: The paper analyses the influence of main parameters that characterized an electrolytic process with powder cathode (granularity of the bed’s particles, the form of current feeder and the place where she is located and fluidization) on shapes of polarization curves.
The obtained experimental data show that graphite powders with granularity in range –0.2+0.125 cm
has the most uniform polarization curves.
Keywords: Volumic electrode, recovery of copper, polarization curves
THE STUDY OF THE STRUCTURAL MODIFICATION OF THE TEMPERED HEAVY ALLOYS BASED TUNGSTEN PLASTICAL DEFORMED
Radu MUREŞAN, Mircea BEJAN, Nicolae BAL, Codruţa PAVEL
Abstract: The alloy is characterized by a complex multiphasical structure. The structure of the W-Ni-Fe alloy
consists from a refractory phase of the solid solution rich in tungsten and a binder phase, easy inflammable,
formed by the solid solution of tungsten and iron in nickel, hardened through dispersion. The behavior of the
heavy alloy at plastically deformation and tempering will be determined by the crystalline nature of the phases, by their interaction and by the role of the interphasical limits which are formed at hardening. The aim of this paper is the study of the structural modification of the binder from the easy inflammable phase of the deformed alloy W-Ni-Fe.
Keywords: AGW, sintering with liquid phase, composite, metallic powder
OPTIMAL SELECTION OF THE CYLINDRICAL GEAR UNIT THROUGH COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS
Abstract: The paper presents a comparative analysis of gear unit’s transmission after the principle constructive and functional parameters, which should be at the basis of the achievement of an optimal selection of those, corroborated which their destination. Theirs the following parameters: size, load value, weight, gear teeth surface, referred torques etc and analyzed.
Keywords: planetary gear, load value
STOCHASTIC MODEL G IN THE INFORMATION THEORY OF INSTRUCTION FOR CALCULUS OF THE ENTROPY OF DIDACTIC CREATIVE INTERACTION
Eugen NOVAC, Diana RUSU. Gruia NOVAC
Abstract: The introduction part describes STOCHASTIC MODEL G in the context of the INFORMATION
THEORY OF INSTRUCTION. It begins with a consideration of the STOCHASTIC MODEL G, followed by an
informational analysis of the instruction process. It develops the concept of G OPERATORS and G
PROGRAMMING, by which the fundamental structure of the DIDACTIC MESSAGE is made clear. There are
also evaluations of the possibility for decoding the DIDACTIC MESAGE by the creative processing of the
transformation matrix, which result from decoding of the elements of this fundamental structure.
In the second part is calculus didactic interaction entropy creative conditioned of informative and
formative interactions. The second part addresses the quantifying criteria for the instructors feedback.
The third part demonstrates the Entropy of Didactic Creative interaction.
The conclusions draw attention to the modes in which the study contributes to the information base of
INSTRUCTION THEORY. The bibliography is selective, being limited to works related specifically to
STOCHASTIC MODEL G.
VIRTUAL REALITY TECHNOLOGIES AND VIRTUAL MANUFACTURING
Abstract: After applications of virtual reality in area of computer games are rise need to exercise this
technology in industry. Main areas of using of virtual projecting and prototyping are automobile and air
industry in this time. Method of dialogue of person with computer is named interface and virtual reality is
newest of row this interfaces. Virtual Reality is technology for presentation of complicated information,
manipulations and interactions of person with them by computer.
Keywords: Virtual Reality, Virtual Technologies, Virtual Manufacturing
AUTOMATED DISASSEMBLING AND ITS POSITION IN THE PROCESS OF PRODUCT RECYCLING
Jozef Novák-Marcinčin, Marek Kočiško
Abstract: Disassembling, together with assembling technology, creates sizeable part of manufacturing
technologies in the area of manufacturing and post-manufacturing processes in industry. A large number of
manual activities, that are needed to be gradually automated, prevail in disassembling technology. Topic of
disassembling the machines and devices plays important role at present time due to the requirements of non-
wasting economy and disposal of these devices after their lifetime is finished.
Keywords: disassembly, automation of disassembly, product recycling
THE DIAGNOSTICS OF HEAT PUMPS IN THE CASE OF A DISCRETE-COMPONENT MONITOR SYSTEM
Prof. Dr. Jozsef M. Nyers D. Sc. , Arpad J. Nyers
Abstract: This article discusses the possible failures of a heat-pump in detail, and deals with the determination of the location and reason of the failure.
The paper describes the types of sensors that can be applied, their mode of function, and how they can
The entire diagnostics of the heat-pump is presented in the form of a table.
The controlling and monitoring are dealt with briefly in the introduction.
EFFECT OF DIFFERENT HEAVY METAL SALTS ON THE GROWTH OF PRE-SELECTED PGPR BACTERIAL STRAINS
Bálint Oldal, István Jevcsák, H.E.A.F. Bayoumi Hamuda, Mihály Kecskés
Abstract: The effects of different heavy metal pollutants were studied on some selected bacteria isolated from Tisza River, its catch basin and the Westsik’s long-term crop rotation experiment on sandy soil (Nyíregyháza, Hungary). Several representatives of bacteria (Aeromonas, Arthrobacter, Acinetobacter, Cytophaga, Bacillus, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Micrococcus, Paracoccus, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Rahnella Stenofrophomonas, Streptomyces and Shewanella) were identified. 13 strains were selected for further investigations, based on their plant growth promoting activity (OLDAL et al., 2001).
Sensitivity tests against different heavy metal compounds were carried out with the use of the following
chemicals at different concentrations: ZnCl2, Zn(NO3)2, CuCl2, Cu(NO3)2, CuSO4, Pb(NO3)2, (NH4)6Mo7O24, Fe(III)Cl3, Fe(II)SO4, Fe(III)(NO3)3. Among the investigated plant growth promoting bacteria, 7 strains proved to have a significant resistance against the heavy metal compounds compared to the other strains: Aeromonas media W.1, Pseudomonas veronii W.7, Pasteurella sp. W.30, Pseudomonas sp. W.36, Bacillus thüringiensis C.69, and III.118, III.119; those total mean sensitivity did not show a statistically reliable difference. The
inhibitory effect of heavy metal compounds on the bacterial growth is further displayed.
SENSOR SYSTEM FOR AN ARTIFICIAL HAND
Ştefan, Oniga; Alin, Tisan
Abstract: This paper presents a flexible digital design platform for the implementation of a Sensor System for an Artificial Hand using reconfigurable devices (FPGA) and a microcontroler. The purpose is to develop systems for artificial sensibility to be applied to hand prostheses and to patients with loss of sensory nerve function. The use of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is essential to fulfill this purpose. This platform was developed in order to provide a fast prototyping environment. The microcontroler is used to implement the software part of a given application, and the reconfigurable device (XC4010XL FPGA- Xilinx) to implement the hardware part of the same application. The neural network is described using VHDL language, and Xilinx ISE4.2 software was used to implement it, in FPGA. By exploiting the easy reconfiguration capabilities of FPGA devices it is possible to implement many type of ANN. Using a Data Acquisition System and acquisition software the system provide an easy way to observe the results.
Keywords: Neural Network, Hardware Implementation, Field Programmable Gate Arrays, Sensor System,
THE INFLUENCE OF THE COANDA EFFECT UPON THE HYDRODYNAMIC FORCES IN THE HYDRAULIC COMMAND RESISTANCES
Dr. DAN OPRUTA
Abstract: In this paper the author presents some aspects concerning the influence of the Coanda effect on the behavior of the oil flow through the hydraulic command resistances. The experimental result, show that for some particular geometrical configuration, where the Coanda effect takes place, the hydrodynamic force and also the flow coefficient increase. Based on the experimental work, the author designed a geometry in order to reduce compensate the hydrodynamic forces on the piston.
DIFFERENTIAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE SELECTIVE TOXICITY OF A PENTAPEPTIDE DERIVATIVE TO SUNFLOWER DOWNY MILDEW PATHOGEN
G. Oros and R. J. Nachman
Abstract: The activity of 2-Amino-7-fluorenyl-succinamoyl-FTPRL-NH2 (PPD) against sunflower downy mildew pathogen was investigated with special regard to host independent ontogenetic stages. The size of the cells as well as she presence and structure of the cell wall apparently influenced the performance of PPD activity as the fungus showed a marked developmental stage dependent response to it: the cell-walled zoosporangia were more tolerant (MIC>1μM) than the zoospores (MIC<1μM), while the smallest cytospores MIC values were 0.03 μM. The early stages of zoosporogenesis were inhibited suggesting that PPD permeates the cell wall of zoosporangia. Functions regulating plasmalemma semipermeability were less sensitive (MIC≈1 μM) than the motility apparatus (MIC≈0.1 μM) of zoospores to PPD and Cu2+ ions. These cells reacted rapidly, as the first observable changes occurred within 5-10 seconds after contact with the compound asserting a target site in the cell membrane. The inhibitory effect was manifested at the nanomolar level, indicating a highly specific binding affinity to the target site and highlighting the importance of the inhibited function for normal operation of the cell membrane.
The overall lesson of our experiment is that the combination of microchemical methods with micro-techniques in screening lead to valuable toxicological data on the membrane-function disturbing activity of synthetic peptide analogues.
THE TRANSVERSE CONTACT RATIO OF WORM GEARINGS
Slavko PAVLENKO, Ján PAŠKO
Abstract: The article presents the description of the method applied to the determination of the mesh
duration factor of worm gearings which is rather difficult to define when compared to that of the spur gearings. A numerical method has been used to determine the transverse contact ratio for involute worm. The above mentioned factor can be used for a dynamic calculation of drives with worm-gear speed reducers.
Keywords: gearings, worm gearings, the transverse contact ratio, involute worm
METHOD AND NEW DEVICE FOR ELLIPSOID WORM GEAR MANUFACTURING ON THE TURNING
PÁY Gábor László, RAVAI NAGY Sándor
Abstract: The internal worm gear pairs are special ones, which are composed by a helical worm and an internal teeth worm wheel. The base of these researches is a patent for internal teeth gears manufacturing by a helical worm hob. The geometrical and kinematics problems were so great and this idea was abandoned. In the case of internal worm gear pairs, when the internal teeth worm wheel are manufactured by a worm hob with same geometrical parameters like the helical worm the manufacturing not represent a difficult problem.
The paper presents a new manufacturing method, by turning, which is better then by hobbing, because
in this case we can achieve any module and basic diameter without problems. The method is lower, but is
economically and more simple.
Keywords: ellipsoid worm, surface generating, turning device
CA DESIGN, MANUFACTRUING AND INSPECTION OF FREE FORM SURFACES
Abstract: In this paper we present the relation between CA technologies and new phenomenon in engineering – free form surfaces. These both evolved jointly and their development is conjoint to day too. We will show how CA technologies are very close jointed, they synthetise the latest knowledge from many disciplines.
Keywords: CA-technologies, CAD, CAM, CAQ, Free Form Surfaces
RATIONAL MAKING DECISIONS IN BUSINESS PROCESSES WITH UTILIZATION OF THE MODELLING AND SIMULATION METHOD
Dariusz Plinta, Sławomir Kukla
Abstract: There is presented the analyse of production processes with utilization of the modelling and simulation method, in the paper. There are determined the rules of creating models of the production process run in the production systems at mega-processes level – activity chains which are connected for example with material or information flow. Then there are presented the rules of the modelling and simulation production subsystems – manufacturing departments, supply and sale. There are described examples of different decision situations from production practice.
Keywords: modelling and simulation, production process
THE WARES PACKAGE MANAGEMENT PROTECTION, PRESERVATION AND PROMOTION FACTORS. NEW ORIENTATIONS
Cecilia POP, Viorel POP
Abstract: In the modern economy, when the marketing and publicity become more aggressive, the package
acquires a major importance concerning the success of one product on the market. But, besides his use as an
instrument for promotion, the package have an primordial role for product protection and to ensure the best
condition for his validity prolongation.
The paper present the new technologies achievements in this field, what offers superior solutions to
meet the exigencies required for packages on national and international markets.
INNOVATIONAL PROPOSALS FOR THE SPCC-6 PLANTER ON THE BASIS OF THE EXPERIENCES ON FIELD IN HUNGARY
Rádics János Péter, Dr. Kerényi György
Abstract: Among the cultivations of plants maybe the most essential operation is the seeding. It’s important to get the seed in optimal time, depth, quality and quantity in the seedbed. In our research we examined the SPCC-6 seeder under working conditions. We disclosed the reason of the failure of fan and planting unit. We created some innovational proposals for inhibiting the failures. We are sure that this machine can be a reliable and modern seeder by realizing the prepared proposals.
Keywords: planter, fan, planting unit, measure
DEFENDING IT INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OPEN ENGINNERING
Mircea, Risteiu; Pop Carmen Loredana
Abstract: Combating computer pests, which can open back doors into networks, thus endangering the integrity of confidential information, is becoming increasingly important. Corporations should update their IT security policies to require that measures be taken against computer pests, including regular scanning and removal.
Good pest control software will search for a wide range of malicious non-viral software and help create
evidence documenting the effectiveness of your computer pest management program.
When we say that the web experience is inhuman, we mean not only that computer systems fall far short of
achieving human intelligence. We also mean that they, and the websites they support, fall short of treating
people as people. Humanity includes aiming to please and catering to human needs. The web treats us in the
most inhuman way possible — ignoring our wishes, requiring us to choose among inflexible scenarios.
Keywords: IT, engineerimg, HCI, Internet challenges, GUI, virtual reality modeling, virtual labs, virtual
machines, intelligent work
THE LABORATORY STAND INTENDED TO TEST AND PROTOTYPE CONTROL SYSTEM FOR SMALL TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT
Tomasz Rogalski, Bogusław Dołęga
Abstract: The paper presents a conception and a practical realization of the laboratory stand intended to
perform basic and advanced tests of the control system for small transportation aircraft.
The stand is made with use of Matlab and Simulink environment. Using xPC and RTW modules enables
the system to do some tests in real time with “Hardware in the loop” including tests with pilots. As a hardware there was used PC computer equipped with specialized boards, including A/C, C/A, converters and RS232, LPT, CAN 2B data lines.
The main task of the presented stand is to make possible testing of control system introducing unconventional conceptions of aircraft controlling (e.g. smart control and decoupled control techniques).
Keywords: control system, small transportation aircraft
ABOUT KINEMATIC ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESIS OF 3-CARDAN TRANSMISSION
Săulescu Radu, Borca Alina, Creţescu Nadia
Abstract: The base relations that describe the generalized kinematical model of a n-Cardan transmission are
proposed in the first part of this paper. On the basis of this model, in the paper is exemplified the 3-Cardan
transmission synthesis by knowing the angles generated by the projections of cardanic shafts on 2 rectangular plans.
Keywords: n-Cardan transmissions, 3-Cardan transmissions, constructive modeling, analyze and synthesis
NEW MACHINERY FOR POPPING SMALL SEEDS
Abstract: Amaranth is a pseudo-cereal, distinct from wheat and maize. Domesticated amaranth is used as leafy vegetables, seeds, forage and ornament. Amaranth grain has protein that is high in lysine, which is usually lacking in cereals.
Amaranth grain can be put to many uses: it can be ground, parched, roasted and popped. There is little
gluten in amaranth flour; therefore it’s ideal for those, who suffer from flour allergy. We can bake breads
containing 18% amaranth flour. Baked in automatic ovens they suit Hungarian taste. Our objective is to increase the choice of milling industry products. Quality products need new technology or the adjustment of the existing equipment.
The technology process needs an all-round mechanization. Our tests have been conducted at the Agricultural
Machinery Department of the Nyíregyháza College. We tested a new popping procedure and we developed a new machine for amaranth popping. Our results are good, we managed to produce quality popped amaranth, which can be used as a basic food for other food industry products. The popped amaranth is used in breads,
confectionery products, healthy food. New tinned and food industry products are being developed (e.g. infant
Our successful tests involve the whole technology process and machinery, a reference plot, the processing of
amaranth grain, tests of the nutritional values of amaranth, new healthy food products (bakery goods,
confectionery products, infant foods).
Keywords: mechanization, technological development, amaranth seed, popping temperature, flow
velocity of the air, humidity, machine for amaranth popping
BIAXIAL STRESS-STRAIN RELATIONSHIP OF SHEET METAL FROM HYDRAULIC BULGING TEST
Abstract: The stress-strain relationship of the aluminium, brass and steel sheets was determined by uniaxial and equibiaxial (hydraulic bulging) tensile tests. Sheet thickness gradation in different points of hemisphere formed in bulge test was analysed, both experimentally and theoretically. The Hollomon equation was used to describe uniaxial and biaxial strain hardening curves, and differential (strain dependent) strain hardening exponent nt was determined on the base of the results of uniaxial and biaxial testing.
Keywords: strain hardening, biaxial strain state, bulging test, sheet thickness distribution
DETERMINATION OF HORIZONTAL AXIS WIND TURBINE PERFORMANCE IN YAW BY USE OF SIMPLIFIED VORTEX THEORY
Piotr Strzelczyk, PhD Eng.
Abstract: The paper presents an application of non-iterative lifting line theory of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine(HAWT) to determination of HAWT’s performance. The presented model is developed on the basis of modified Witoszyński’s propeller theory presented in  . In this model an iterative determination of induced velocity field is avoided thanks to solution method similar to as in Witoszyński’s propeller theory. The Goldstein kappa factor or Prandtl tip loss factor are introduced to the equations of momentum and angular momentum for ideal HAWT. Ideal axial force (thrust) and ideal torque are determined using blade element method (BEM) (profile losses are neglected). This values of thrust and torque are compared to those obtained from momentum and torque equation. Thanks to approximation of lift force coefficient vs. angle of attack by sine curve one may obtain a quadratic equation for axial velocity component An extended version of the model including nonuniform inflow is presented. In the theory a quasi-steady approach to blade element characteristics was applied. The calculations are compared with experimental data obtained at Risφ 100 kW test turbine. Presented results show that, the method described in the paper underestimates performance for low speed winds, whereas for strong winds the power output is slightly overestimated.
Keywords: Wind turbine, Vortex theory, HAWT, Nonuniform inflow, aerodynamics
THE STATE OF OWNERSHIP TRANSFORMATION IN POLISH ECONOMY
Abstract: The intention of the work is to define how advanced is transformation process of Polish economy.
Ownership transformations in all sections of it run their own ways. It results that those processes are varied
advanced in varied sections of Polish economy. In a structure of following sections of polish economy a share of private part is significantly higher then state part: “trade and repair”, ”construction”, “manufacturing”,
”agriculture hunting and forestry”. Transformation is weakest advanced in following sections: “electricity, gas
and water supply, ,”mining and quarrying”, “transport storage and communication”.
Keywords: Polish economy, ownership transformations
DESIGN PROJECTS OF IPD EDUCATION AT THE BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS
Abstract: A basic characteristic feature of the industrial design engineering education at the Budapest University of Technology and Economics is that it is considerably practice oriented and is based on the so called “learning by doing” principle. It means that students from the very beginning of their studies work on individual projects, they design and model products and even build their prototypes in workshops.
Keywords: Integrated, Industrial, Design, Projects, Education
THE EXAMINATION FO PENETRATION VALUES FOR CLAY SOILS, AND THEIR CONVERSION INTO AN IDENTICAL HUMIDTY LEVEL
István Szőllősi Ph.D candidate, Zoltán Kovács Ph.D candidate
Abstract: Soil resistance is measured by penetrometer, which is one of the commonest ways of examining
changes in the physical state of the soil in space and time, the position of the compacted soil layers. However,
examining the effect of cultivation we conclude from the soil resistance into soil compactness, it is indispentable to know the humidity values of the soil. In Hungarian practice comparing various treatment, the nearly equal soil humidity values are compared, therefore a part of values is lost for evaluation. A new method to overcome this problem was invented, when the soil resistance values at various soil humidity are converted into the ones at identical humidity values.
STRAINS AND STRESSES IN TWO METAL STRUCTURES FOR STORAGE
PhD student, eng. Iurie ŢERNA, Prof.PhD, eng. Augustin CREŢU
Abstract: The paper performs a numerical analysis with the RDM 6 software concerning the behaviour
under loading of some beam structures. The maximal stresses and deflections, reaction and internal forces were determined. Solutions were proposed to optimize the stress distributions and to increase the general stability of the structures.
Keywords: strains, stresses, metal structures, stability, finite element
PRINCIPLES OF CUTTING-WHEEL TOOTHING
Abstract: The paper discusses the way in which cylindrical gear-wheels are being produced as shown in figures 1, 2 and 3;
• the principle of cylindrical gear-wheels mortising using the cutting-wheel tool;
• the rolling kinematic chain (A,B) of gear-wheel mortising machines;
• the kinematic scheme of gear wheel mortising machine;
Subsequent to the analysis of the application areas of cylindrical gear wheels, the way cutting-wheels are being made is being discussed (see fig. 4 and 5);
• the cutting-wheel tool and the equivalent variable wheel;
• the cutting-wheel fabrication process using the gear-hob;
The paper introduces new terms into this area of research, terms representing the contribution of the author.
Keywords: cutting-wheel; mortising, toothing, apparent profile, bi-conical sharpening
THE PROFESSIONAL FORMATION OF SPECIALISTS FOR THE FABRICATION OF GEAR WHEELS BY MEANS OF EXEPERIMENTAL RESEARCH
Lecturer Dr.Eng. Vasile Ţiplea
Abstract: This paper presents the processing procedure of gear wheels by means of wheel-tool mortising
within the Machine-Line-up-Tool-Part “MLTP” system. In order to avoid the complex calculations requested by the fabrication of gear wheels I have set up a model of experimental research that allows the specialist to use a measuring chain of geometrical parameters with the help of competitive machinery.
Thus, the results of experimental research performed on a lot of 2000 gear wheels are being presented. This
is done by using different cutting modes: Cs, Cf (Cs – cutting speed, m/min., Cf – circular feed, mm/cd, dc –
double course per minute).
These results have led to establishing an optimal cutting mode Cs, Cf on the basis of the parameters that
have been taken into consideration.
The paper is as a pattern in the determining process of other important geometrical parameters of gear
wheels such as: toothing radial clatter, the above “n’ quota, “tn” – teeth number, the width between centres, the flank and profile toothing roughness.
Keywords: mortising, parameters, gear, cutting
CURRENT STATUS OF ELECTRONIC NOSE: THE SENSING SYSTEM
Alin, Tisan; Stefan, Oniga
Abstract: Electronic/artificial noses are being developed as systems for the automated detection and
classification of odours, vapours, and gases. An electronic nose is generally composed of a chemical sensing
system (e.g., sensor array or spectrometer) and a pattern recognition system (e.g., artificial neural network).
Today’s electronic nose technology consists with arrays of sensors that respond to a wide range of compounds, as well as advanced pattern recognition and artificial intelligence techniques, which enable users to readily extract relevant and reliable information.
Keywords: electronic nose, sensing system, pattern recognition system
ANALYZE OF CONTACT PRESSURES FOR BRAKING SYSTEM FOR HOISTING MACHINE
Mioriţa UNGUREANU, Nicolae UNGUREANU, Sorin MIHAILESCU
Abstract: The paper present parts of researches in the range of braking systems for hoisting
machines, especially the studies of acting forces and contact pressures located to the one piece rim and
Keywords: Rim, brake shoe, contact pressure
ACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS IN RYE (SECALE CEREALE L.) FROM MUNICIPAL SEWAGE SLUDGES
Zs. Uri, L. Simon and P. Keresztúri
Abstract: Accumulation of heavy metals in rye from variously treated municipal sewage sludges from 3 big cities from Eastern Hungary was studied in pot experiment. The studied sewage sludges proved to be relatively uncontaminated with Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, their heavy metal concentrations were considerably lower than the values of Hungarian regulatory limits. Heavy metals were accumulated prevalently in the roots of rye test plants, and rate of metal translocation to shoots was low.
Keywords: heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn), municipal sewage sludge, rye (Secale cereale L.)
THE POSSIBILITIES OF GROWING TABLE GRAPES WITH SUSTAINABLE SOIL CULTIVATION IN THE CARPATHIAN BASIN
Dr. Vágvölgyi Sándor
POSSIBILITY OF UTILIZING OF ADVANCED METHODS IN CAPP
Zajačko Ivan, Staník Jan
Abstract: By development of CAPP systems occur a lot of problems bonded with algorithmization elements from real world to mathematic models. Our article brings list of some course to resolve this problems.
Keywords: CAPP systems, GA, Fuzzy Logic, Neural networks
ECOLOGY AND DESIGN. ECODESIGN